Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test?
Not always, even though it’s legal. Here’s how to protect yourself.
The 26-year-old video producer from Reno, Nev., was shocked when a drug test he took as part of a job application came back positive for marijuana. The problem? He hadn’t used marijuana, he says. Instead, J.C., who prefers not to use his name, had taken CBD, or cannabidiol, from hemp to help with sleep and anxiety. And unlike THC, a related compound in cannabis plants, CBD can’t get you high.
“I thought I was in the clear,” J.C. says. “From everything that I had heard, CBD oil wasn’t supposed to show up on drug tests.”
CBD is going mainstream. Late last year Congress made CBD from hemp legal at the federal level. And it’s increasingly found on store shelves, now even sold in some CVS, Rite Aid, and Walgreens stores. An estimated 64 million people have tried CBD in the past 24 months, according to a January 2019 nationally representative survey by Consumer Reports of more than 4,000 adult Americans, using it for pain, insomnia, anxiety, and other health problems.
But as more people try it, one unexpected “side effect” could be failing an employer’s drug test, and even losing a job as a result.
Consider Bianca Thurston of Pennsylvania and Coni Hass of California. They are jointly suing Koi CBD, alleging that they failed drug tests because of the company’s CBD product; Thurston lost her job. Or Douglas Horn, a truck driver in New York who alleges that he lost his job after taking a CBD product made by Dixie (aka Dixie Elixirs).
Koi CBD told Consumer Reports in a statement about the lawsuit: “Koi prides itself on providing the highest-quality products while being a leader in the industry. We take claims regarding our products very seriously. We are investigating this matter and the allegations, which at this time, are unproven and unverified. We remain focused on continuing to carefully craft and offer a full array of beneficial cannabinoid products.”
Dixie Elixirs did not respond to a request for a comment.
So how can you fail a drug test after taking CBD? The urine test most commonly used doesn’t even look for CBD but instead a compound created by the body when it metabolizes THC, says Barry Sample, senior director of science and technology at Quest Diagnostics, the largest administrator of drug tests in the U.S. “There isn’t going to be a laboratory analytical false positive confusing CBD with a THC metabolite.”
But Sample says that CBD products could have more THC than the label claims. CBD products from hemp sold in retail stores and online aren’t supposed contain more than 0.3 percent THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound in marijuana that can get you high.
It’s also possible that over time, the small amounts of THC allowed in CBD products could build up in the body to detectable levels.
And while New York City recently passed a law that, starting May 10, 2020, will bar many employers from testing prospective employees for marijuana, that is still the exception, even in states that allow marijuana for medical or adult recreational use. In fact, more than half of employers test job applicants for it, says Kate Kennedy, spokesperson for the Society for Human Resource Management, an industry group. That can help companies lower costs for disability insurance and workers’ compensation. Some people who work for the federal government or military or as pilots, bus drivers, train conductors, or truck drivers are also subject to drug testing.
So if you use CBD, especially if you are applying for a job or work in a sensitive field, you should be aware of the possible need to pass a drug test. Here’s more on how to do it, as well as advice on how to avoid that problem or deal with a positive drug test because of CBD.
CBD products often have more THC than claimed, research suggests. For example, a 2017 study in JAMA found that 18 of 84 CBD products, all purchased online, had THC levels possibly high enough to cause intoxication or impairment.
And those elevated levels might also be high enough to cause you not to pass a drug test.
That’s what Horn, the truck driver from New York, alleges happened to him after taking a product advertised to contain “zero THC.”
After losing his job because of the failed drug test, the lawsuit says Horn purchased a sample of the CBD product, had it tested, and found that, contrary to the claim, it did contain THC—enough, the lawsuit alleges, to cause a THC level in his urine of 29 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). That’s double the amount that typically triggers a positive result, says Sample at Quest Diagnostics.
Mislabeled CBD products are a growing problem for American workers, Sample believes. “It’s buyer beware,” he says. “There’s not always truth in labeling on the products.”
And he believes those high levels could be due in part to how THC levels are measured in hemp plants. While those plants are supposed to contain no more than 0.3 percent THC, that’s based on the dry weight of the plant. “But dry weight doesn’t necessarily equate to what’s in the finished product,” Sample says.
Plus, he says, in some cases that percentage is based on the weight of the whole plant, or on the weight of the buds or flowers, which tend to have more THC.
Adding to the confusion is that each state can determine how it samples and tests hemp plants for THC content, says Aline DeLucia, senior policy analyst for the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture. When sampling the hemp plant, “the closer you get to the flower, the higher the THC content. So some states collect the top 6 inches of the plant, while others do it differently,” DeLucia says. But “everybody is onboard that we need some kind of uniformity.”
And once CBD is turned into a “finished” product, such as an oil, a lotion, a tincture, a pill, or a vape liquid, few states dictate how those should be tested for THC, save for Oregon and soon Vermont. State agriculture departments, DeLucia says, don’t have jurisdiction over testing these products for safety.
Last, some states allow medical CBD products obtained through permitted channels to contain more than 0.3 percent THC. For example, the cutoff in Georgia and Virginia is 5 percent, Sample says, a level that is definitely high enough to cause impairment and a failed drug test.
Best bet: To increase the likelihood that a product doesn’t have more THC than claimed, look for a manufacturer that can provide a Certificate of Analysis, or COA, for its product. That document shows the results of a company’s testing for THC, CBD, and various contaminants. Though that testing is voluntary (except in Indiana and Utah) and the results aren’t confirmed by independent experts, for now it’s the best information available. If a store or website can’t provide you with a COA, look for another product. Read more about how CBD products are tested.
Small Amounts of THC Can Build Up
Many legitimate CBD products contain small amounts of THC. And when taken regularly over as little as four to six days, that THC can accumulate in the body, according to several studies.
That’s because THC is fat-soluble, says Norbert E. Kaminski, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology and toxicology at Michigan State University in East Lansing. So THC that isn’t immediately metabolized by the body will be stored in fat tissue. And “over time, THC and THC metabolites will be slowly released,” Kaminski says. As a result, it’s possible to test positive for THC and not pass a drug test, even after you’ve stopped taking the product.
Sample, at Quest Diagnostics, says that chronic, heavy users of marijuana could test positive even a month after they stop using it.
Best bet: Consider products that are claimed to be “CBD only” and have COAs showing that they contain zero THC. Also, you can try tracking your own THC levels with an at-home drug test, says Mitch Earleywine, Ph.D., a professor of psychology at the University at Albany, State University of New York, who has studied the medicinal use of CBD. If you test positive but need to be THC-free, consider taking a two- to three-week break from the product to clear THC from your system, he says.
What to Do If You Failed a Drug Test
Talk with your employer. That’s what worked for J.C., in Nevada, after he tested positive for marijuana use. Armed with documentation from his doctor that he was taking CBD to treat anxiety and insomnia, he met with company co-founder Matt Ross, chief operating officer of the Slumber Yard—a website that tracks user experiences with buying and using mattresses—and explained why he was taking it. He even took the bottle in for his employer to see.
“I wasn’t familiar with CBD at the time,” Ross says. But he and his partner appreciated that J.C. addressed the situation. “He was really talented as a video editor, and we felt comfortable enough to get past it.”
If that doesn’t work, try your company’s HR department. If your employer resists, you may be able to seek protection through the Americans with Disabilities Act and state disability laws. Those laws allows people with documented needs to get exceptions, or “reasonable accommodations,” to account for their medical situation. While the ADA does not apply to marijuana—because it remains illegal on the federal level, even for medical use—it’s still worth asking your company’s HR department, says James Reidy, an attorney at Sheehan Phinney Bass & Green who focuses on drug policy issues with employers. That’s because CBD from hemp is now legal on a federal level.
If you have any documentation from a medical provider, that can help, too. And you may have more luck if you live in Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, or West Virginia. Those states have passed laws providing some protection for people who use medical marijuana, potentially including CBD, Reidy says.
Other states, such as likeCalifornia, Montana, Oregon, and Washington have laws to assure that companies located in those states do not have to provide “reasonable accommodations” for people who use medical marijuana, and leave it up to each employer to decide, Reidy says. In those states, though, it’s still worth asking your company’s HR department about it if you’ve failed a drug test for marijuana after taking CBD.
Ask for a retest. If you’ve stopped taking CBD for a few weeks or longer, or took CBD infrequently, and still test positive for marijuana, consider asking for a retest. Though there are safeguards in place to prevent errors, Sample says, in rare cases they do happen.
In addition, some companies might set the threshold for THC very low to catch as many people as possible, Earleywine says. But doing so means the test can generate “some false positives, people who look as if they’ve used THC when they haven’t.”
Stop or skip using CBD products if faced with an upcoming drug test. That’s the only way to ensure that your CBD won’t trigger a positive test result for marijuana. And that includes stopping use of topical CBD lotions, oils, and cosmetic products, says Kaminski at Michigan State University. And it’s best to stop two to three weeks before the test, he adds. That should allow for enough time for any THC and THC metabolites to clear out of your system.
If you have to pass a drug test, you might want to skip taking CBD. Here’s why and how to protect yourself, with details from Consumer Reports on whether you can take CBD and pass a drug test.
How long does CBD oil stay in your system?
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- How long does CBD oil stay in your system?
- How long is CBD detectable in urine?
- How long do CBD oil effects last?
- Will CBD show up on a drug test?
- Bottom line
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating compound found in the cannabis plant, may potentially relieve mild pain and anxiety. While many people are using CBD for these potential benefits, the fear of failing a drug test looms large for others. Because even with the legalization of hemp-derived CBD products in the US, there’s still some uncertainty about how CBD interacts with the body.
Here, we’ll cover the existing research on CBD and its interaction with the human body as well as what factors can affect how long CBD stays in your system.
How long does CBD stay in your system? That depends on multiple factors. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
How long does CBD oil stay in your system?
CBD may not produce the same intoxicating effects as THC, but it does get stored in the body. The time that CBD remains detectable in the body depends on several factors.
- Metabolism: A person’s metabolism plays a prominent role in how fast CBD is metabolized and eventually excreted from the body.
- Frequency of use: Using CBD frequently will also influence the amount of time it remains in the body.
- Dosage: A large amount of CBD taken at a time will influence how long the cannabinoid remains in the system.
- Method of administration: Both the effects of CBD and its presence in the body are contingent on how the cannabinoid is introduced into the body. For instance, smoking or vaping CBD allows it to take effect almost immediately, while ingestion will delay the onset for an hour or two.
A 1991 study published in Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior examined the concentration of CBD in the blood after high doses daily. Over a six-week period, the research team administered a daily dose of 700 milligrams of CBD to 14 Huntington’s disease patients. One week after the dosing ceased, the CBD remaining in the blood was just 1.5 nanograms per milliliter and was “virtually undetectable” thereafter.
A 2018 review of existing CBD studies found that the estimated half-life of CBD was two to five days for those who took a daily oral dose. Other delivery methods delivered varied half-lives.
Bottom line: While the time that CBD is detectable in the body will depend on the aforementioned factors, we can deduce that CBD will likely leave the system after a week or two.
While the time that CBD is detectable in the body will vary, we can deduce that CBD will likely leave the system after a week or two. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
How long is CBD detectable in urine?
We have some insight into how long CBD remains in the blood, but there is little research on how long CBD is detectable in urine. In a 2016 study published in the Journal of Pain, participants were given different types of CBD-rich cannabis products, including oils, capsules, and flower. Two hours after administration, urine samples from all 15 subjects tested positive for CBD. The researchers followed one participant after the last day of administration and found that CBD was no longer detectable in the urine after 24 hours.
It’s important to note that, while existing evidence shows us that CBD can definitely be detected in the body for a certain period of time, most drug tests specifically look for the presence of THC. Therefore, accurate information on how long CBD stays in the body remains limited compared with information on THC.
Bottom line: Apart from the one study that showed CBD was no longer detectable in urine after 24 hours, there isn’t much research on drug testing for CBD in urine.
How long do CBD oil effects last?
The consumption method plays a crucial role in determining how long it will take to feel the effects of CBD and how long they will last.
Oral ingestion is the most common method of CBD consumption. Administering a couple of drops of CBD oil directly into the mouth is certainly a convenient way to reap the potential benefits of this therapeutic cannabinoid. However, ingestion is not necessarily the most effective consumption method for those who want to feel the effects of CBD immediately.
Swallowing CBD oil prevents the cannabinoid from entering the bloodstream right away. Instead, it will travel first through the digestive tract and eventually on to the liver, where it will be broken down before finally reaching the bloodstream.
With ingestion, it could take anywhere from one to two hours before the effects of CBD finally set in. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Studies show that when the liver metabolizes CBD compounds, they undergo what is called the “first-pass effect.” Enzymes in the liver reduce CBD concentration before the remainder is finally sent to the bloodstream and circulated throughout the body. While oral consumption of CBD has become popular for its ease of use, it can be an inefficient method of consumption compared with inhalation or sublingual administration. This is because only about 5% of swallowed CBD ends up in the bloodstream, meaning this method provides low bioavailability.
Bottom line: Whether you’re ingesting CBD oil or CBD-infused edibles, it ultimately goes through the same lengthy digestive process, reducing the total CBD concentration in the bloodstream. With ingestion, it could take anywhere from one to two hours before the effects of CBD finally set in. From there, you may feel the effects for one hour to several hours, depending on the dose and your response to CBD.
The sublingual method is considered to be more effective than ingestion. CBD oil can be consumed sublingually by placing a few drops under the tongue and holding it for two to four minutes, then using the tongue to rub it into the tissue under the tongue and on the inside of the cheeks before swallowing the remainder. Using this method, CBD is transferred to the bloodstream via the mucous membranes located in the mouth, completely bypassing the digestive system and liver.
Consuming CBD products sublingually leads to higher bioavailability compared to consuming CBD products orally. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Bottom line: Consuming CBD products sublingually leads to higher bioavailability compared to consuming CBD products orally. Depending on the dose and your response to CBD, the effects from sublingual consumption should kick in within 30 minutes and last for one to three hours.
Inhalation is also an effective delivery method for CBD due to its rapid absorption and the efficiency of the lungs at transferring CBD into the bloodstream. Whether you’re smoking a high-CBD strain or taking a draw from a CBD vape pen, the interaction with the body remains the same. When CBD is inhaled, the cannabinoids are sent directly to the lungs, where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and put into circulation.
Inhalation, via CBD vapes or smokable flower, is also an effective delivery method for CBD. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Bottom line: Existing evidence suggests that CBD reaches peak blood concentration within three minutes after inhalation, meaning any effects should be felt shortly after use. The effects should then last anywhere from 45 minutes to a couple of hours.
Will CBD show up on a drug test?
In most cases, it’s highly unlikely that CBD will cause a positive test result in a drug screening. Most drug tests are developed to look specifically for the presence of THC or related substances. On top of that, employers generally abide by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services (SAMHSA) guidelines, which include detection for THC but not CBD.
Keep in mind that even hemp-derived CBD products are legally allowed to contain up to 0.3% THC. This could cause hesitation for some CBD-curious consumers who don’t want THC in their system or risk a false positive result on a drug test. However, the chances of failing a drug test from using hemp-extracted CBD oil are extremely slim. You would need to take an exorbitant dosage of full-spectrum CBD oil (estimates range from 1,000 to 2,000 milligrams per day) to risk a positive drug test result.
Consumers who want to be extra-cautious and use CBD with no THC should shop for a broad-spectrum oil or a CBD product that contains pure CBD isolate. Broad-spectrum oil is refined to exclude THC, while CBD isolates contain no THC or other plant-based cannabinoids. To ensure that your CBD contains no THC, it’s important to source products from reputable manufacturers that provide a certificate of analysis from a third-party testing lab.
Consumers who want to be extra-cautious and use CBD with no THC should shop for a broad-spectrum oil or a CBD product that contains pure CBD isolate. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Based on existing research, CBD may stay in your system anywhere from 24 hours to a few weeks. That timeframe can change depending on a variety of factors including metabolism, consumption method, frequency of use, and dosage.
For those concerned about drug tests, there are different types of drug tests with varying detection thresholds for THC. The most commonly used drug screening method is the urine test, which typically has a lower threshold for detection. Under the SAMHSA framework, the cutoff limit for the presence of THC is 50 nanograms per milliliter. A nanogram is one-billionth of a gram. Given the research, it would be very unusual to fail a drug test after consuming licensed, lab-tested CBD products.
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