Cannabidiol (CBD) for Epilepsy Treatment
Epidiolex, a precription form, is approved for some seizures
Claudia Chaves, MD, is board-certified in cerebrovascular disease and neurology with a subspecialty certification in vascular neurology. She is an associate professor of neurology at Tufts Medical School and medical director of the Lahey Clinic Multiple Sclerosis Center in Lexington, Massachusetts.
Cannabidiol (CBD)—a component of the marijuana plant—has gotten a lot of attention for medical use, including the treatment of epilepsy. Epidiolex is the only prescription form of CBD available, and it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2018 for the treatment of seizures in two hard-to-treat forms epilepsy—Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex is approved for adults and children over the age of 2 who have one of these rare disorders.
How It Works
Seizures are caused by erratic electrical activity in the brain that can spread and cause uncontrolled physical movements and/or alterations of consciousness. Most anti-seizure drugs work by slowing down excitatory nerve activity in the brain.
However, LGS and Dravet syndrome may be treated with medications that aren’t commonly used for most types of epilepsy. Additionally, they often require two or more anti-seizure drugs for seizures to be under control.
It is not completely clear why CBD can reduce some types of seizures. It is known to have a range of biochemical effects on nerve cells in the brain, some of which may have an impact on seizures. Medical research on CBD is still in its early stages.
Prescription CBD is specifically recommended for control of seizures in LGS and Dravet syndrome.
LGS is a developmental disorder that begins in early childhood and is characterized by multiple seizure types, as well as physical and cognitive deficits. The seizures of LGS are difficult to control and are managed with a different medication regimen than that which is used for most epilepsy types.
Dravet syndrome is a developmental disorder that begins in early childhood and is associated with multiple seizure types as well as seizures triggered by fevers. People with Dravet syndrome often have behavioral challenges and learning difficulties.
Even with treatment, people with LGS or Dravet syndrome may continue to experience persistent seizures.
However, studies have shown that CBD, when taken with other anti-seizure medications, reduces the frequency and severity of seizures in people who have these disorders.
A 2019 review of studies on Epidiolex showed a sustained seizure frequency reduction of between 30 and 63 percent. Additionally, seizures were about half as severe and the postictal (after seizure) state was less severe as well.
What About Other Seizure Types?
Studies using CBD for seizure control are focused on refractory seizures, which are seizures that are not easily controlled with anti-seizure treatments. It’s still too soon to tell whether it will be beneficial and tolerable for people with other seizure types. As such, CBD is not approved for other types of seizures or epilepsy itself at this time.
Cannabidiol is a controversial treatment because it is one of the components of marijuana, a widely known recreational drug. There are strong opinions about the drug, and proponents advocate for its legalization for medical uses, while some advocate for the legalization of recreational use as well.
At this time, cannabidiol has been proven effective for only a few medical conditions. Due to the side effects, it is recommended to be used with caution.
If you have questions regarding whether cannabidiol is an appropriate treatment for you or someone you know, talk to your doctor first. You can use our Doctor Discussion Guide below to help start that conversation about treatment options and more.
Epilepsy Doctor Discussion Guide
Get our printable guide for your next doctor’s appointment to help you ask the right questions.
Epidiolex comes in an oral solution (liquid form), and the recommended dose is initiated based on weight.
It is generally started at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg twice per day and increased weekly. It can be increased up to a dose of 20 mg/kg per day if needed, but increased side effects have been found to occur at the higher dose.
Anti-seizure medications should be taken at the regularly scheduled times without skipping or combining doses.
Sometimes, children and adults who have LGS or Dravet syndrome have some difficulties taking oral medication due to difficulty swallowing, behavioral problems, and/or cognitive issues. It may be a challenge to get your child to take any medication, and you might need to develop strategies to help with this process.
The side effects of CBD that have been reported in the studies when it was added to other antiseizure medications included:
- Upper respiratory tract infection/rhinitis
- Generalized fatigue
- Sleeping difficulties
- Decreased appetite
- Status epilepticus (prolonged seizure requiring emergency attention)
In studies, these were more common in the first two weeks on Epidiolex, after which time they tended to diminish. Additionally, many of the studies on the drug involved at least one other anti-seizure drug as well, so the side effects may not all have been due to Epidiolex.
More severe side effects, which you should contact your doctor about right away, include:
- Symptoms of liver injury:Jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, vomiting, and dark colored urine
- Mood changes: Depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation
CBD itself does not have abuse potential and does not produce the “high” that is typical of marijuana, so you do not need to worry about your child abusing the drug or becoming addicted to it. However, it is possible that others may misunderstand the effects of the drug, particularly because it is new and because it is derived from the same plant that marijuana is derived from.
There’s still much to be learned about how CBD interacts with other anti-seizure drugs.
It’s possible that CBD may raise the blood level of certain other anticonvulsants such as Topamax and Onfi (clobazam), and may result in side effects.
When used with other anti-seizure drugs, CBD can cause elevated liver enzymes, which is often a sign of liver injury.
In the aforementioned 2019 review of studies on this drug, however, researchers found that while adding Epidiolex to a treatment regimen may increase certain specific side effects, it may actually decrease the overall amount of side effects participants experienced.
Over-the-Counter CBD Products
A multitude of CBD-containing products are on the market, and some people have chosen to use them for seizure control. This trend is likely to grow, especially since the 2018 Farm Bill made hemp-derived products, including CBD, legal at the federal level.
However, these products aren’t regulated by the FDA and are largely untested. The FDA has warned that CBD products are often mislabeled or overpromise their supposed benefits. Dosage and quality are likely to be far less consistent with other CBD products, which may put you at risk for more seizures.
In fact, the FDA has issued warnings to many CBD businesses for illegal practices, including those related to the marketing of their products. In some cases, actual CBD content was negligible or less than 1 percent of what the label claimed.
A 2017 study published in JAMA found that 26 percent of products purchased online contained less CBD than their labels claimed.
Some other CBD products contained other compounds from the marijuana plant, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)—the part that gets you “high.”
A Word From Verywell
Given that CBD is a fairly new therapy for epilepsy, you may experience challenges when it comes to health insurance coverage or availability of the medication. If you do, be sure to involve your doctor, who can provide documentation that can help you get an approval for coverage and may be able to refer you to a source that will fill your prescription.
Epidiolex contains cannabidiol (CBD) from the marijuana plant. It is approved to treat Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Learn about safety and more.
Medical Marijuana and Epilepsy
In this episode of Hallway Conversations, epilepsy.com Editor-In-Chief Dr. Joseph Sirven interviews Dr. Jose Cavazos MD, PhD, professor of neurology at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. They discuss Dr. Cavazos’ experience serving as a panelist on the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drug Advisory Committee review of Epidiolex ® for the treatment of Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes.
The Journal of Child Neurology hosted a special report podcast about cannabis on March 6, 2017. In the report, Dr. Alison Christy interviews Dr. Jackie Gofshteyn, a resident in pediatric neurology at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, about her article, “Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases.” Dr. Christy also speaks with epilepsy.com’s medical cannabis editor, Dr. Anup Patel of Nationwide Children’s Hospital, about his article, “Medical Marijuana in Pediatric Neurological Disorders.” Margo Roemeling, a third year medical student at Oregon Health and Sciences University, shares the learning topic on the history and use of marijuana in the treatment of pediatric neurologic conditions.
- Effect of Cannabidiol on Drop Seizures in the Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome, September 2018
- Cannabis and Seizures: Questions to Consider, September 2018
- Epilepsy Foundation Statement on the FDA’s Approval of Epidiolex, June 2018
- Epilepsy Foundation Testifies Before FDA Advisory Committee in Support of Potential First-Ever Cannabidiol Drug to Treat Dravet Syndrome, April 2018
- A Parent’s Perspective: the LGS Epidiolex Study, January 2018
- Data on Purified CBD, Epidiolex, for Dravet Syndrome, May 2017
- Cannabis & Seizures: Questions to Consider, March 2017
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The use of cannabis to treat epilepsy and other neurological conditions has been studied for a number of years. It has been hotly debated too.
On June 25, 2018, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved EPIDIOLEX ® (cannabidiol, CBD) oral solution for the treatment of seizures associated with two epilepsy syndromes – Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome – in people two years of age or older. Epidiolex represents a new medication option for children with these types of epilepsy. It is also the first ever FDA approved medication to treat seizures in Dravet syndrome.
What does FDA approval of Epidiolex (CBD oral solution) mean?
The FDA approval and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) scheduling of Epidiolex brings to market the first plant-based drug derived from the cannabis plant in the U.S.
- Statement on DEA Rescheduling Epidiolex
- Q&A on the DEA Rescheduling of Epidiolex
- Medical cannabis and CBD frequently asked questions
- Medical cannabis and CBD advocacy
What is medical cannabis?
Cannabis is known by many names – the most common is marijuana. Cannabis is the Latin name used most often by botanists and pharmaceutical companies. The word marijuana usually refers to the leaves and female flowers of the cannabis plant. Medical cannabis is whole plant marijuana or chemicals in the plant used for medical purposes.
Cannabinoids are substances in cannabis that act on cells in the body (called cannabinoid receptors) to cause some effect. Two major ingredients include
- Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, which causes the psychoactive effects of “getting high”
- Cannabidiol, or CBD, which does not cause psychoactive effects but has shown some positive effects on certain body systems. This is the part that has been effective in reducing seizures in some people with epilepsy.
Does cannabis help seizures?
Early evidence from laboratory studies, anecdotal reports, and small clinical studies over a number of years suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) could potentially help control seizures. Research on CBD has been hard to do and taken time due to federal regulations and limited access to cannabidiol. There are also many financial and time constraints. In recent years, a number of studies have shown the benefit of specific plant-based CBD product in treating specific groups of people with epilepsy who have not responded to traditional therapies.
What do I need to know about hemp?
Hemp is a variety of Cannabis Sativa L. plant historically grown for fibrous materials found in its stalks and seeds. It has been used to make items such as clothing fiber, upholstery, and other household items.
Hemp traditionally contains lower concentrations of THC and higher levels of CBD. Cannabinoids extracted from hemp plants, including CBD, have until recently been classified as marijuana and considered Schedule I substances. Per the DEA, Schedule I substances currently have no accepted medical use and have a high potential for abuse. A federal law* enacted in December 2018, however, reclassifies hemp and hemp-derived CBD as an agricultural commodity and exempts it from the list of Schedule I Drugs.
Despite this change in the classification of hemp and hemp-derived CBD, the only CBD product that has been rigorously studied and approved to be used as a medical therapy for epilepsy is the drug Epidiolex. While more CBD products may come to market in the coming months, it is important to understand that not every CBD product is the same quality or uniform from batch to batch. Any drug or supplement that is being considered for use as a medical treatment should first be discussed with your doctor. The potential for benefit as well as the interaction with other seizure medications and possible side effects require careful review with your doctor.
*The Agriculture and Nutrition Act of 2018 (H.R. 2) legalizes hemp and hemp-derived CBD. The bill changes the definition of hemp to encompass any plant or product derived from the plant that contain less than 0.3% THC by dry weight and classifies them as exempt from the controlled substance restrictions applied to marijuana. The law further amends the Controlled Substances Act to exempt hemp from Schedule I drugs.
What studies exist to support the use of CBD in epilepsy?
Epidiolex (Cannabidiol, CBD)
Studies in the U.S. of Epidiolex (a plant-based CBD formulation) have been ongoing for a number of years. Data from these studies has helped provide evidence that led to the FDA approval of this product on June 25, 2018.
Epidiolex is a purified (> 98% oil-based) CBD extract from the cannabis plant. It is produced by Greenwich Biosciences (the U.S. based company of GW Pharmaceuticals) to give known and consistent amounts in each dose.
Researchers studied this medicine in controlled clinical trials. These studies used a control group with some people taking a placebo while others were given CBD at different doses. Researchers did not know who was getting the placebo and who was getting CBD. These tpyes of studies are called “gold standard” studies.
A summary of the Epidiolex clinical trials is found below:
- In controlled and uncontrolled trials in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome, 689 people were treated with Epidiolex (CBD), including 533 people treated for more than 6 months and 391 people treated for more than 1 year.
- In an expanded access program and other compassionate use programs, 161 people with Dravet syndrome and LGS were treated with Epidiolex, including 109 people treated for more than 6 months.
- All study participants were taking other seizure medications.
- In controlled trials, the rate of stopping the medicine due to any side effect was small and happened most in people taking the higher dose of Epidiolex.
- The most frequent cause of stopping treatment with Epidiolex was a change in liver function.
- Sleepiness, sedation, and lethargy led to stopping Epidiolex in 3% of people taking the higher dose.
- The most common side effects were sleepiness, decreased appetite, diarrhea, change in liver function, fatigue, malaise, asthenia (weakness or lack of energy), rash, insomnia, sleep disorder, poor quality sleep, and infections.
Results from Gold Standard Studies of Epidiolex (CBD)
NEJM May 2018
Summarized below are the results from a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in May 2018.
- Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (gold standard) was done at 30 clinical centers.
- People with LGS (age range 2 to 55 years) who had had two or more drop (atonic) seizures each week during a 28-day baseline period were included. They were randomly selected to receive CBD oral solution at a dose of either 20 milligram per kilogram of body weight (20-mg cannabidiol group) or 10 milligram per kilogram of body weight (10-mg cannabidiol group) or matching placebo.
- A total of 225 people were enrolled in the 3 groups:
- 76 people were assigned to the 20-mg CBD group
- 73 to the 10-mg CBD group
- 76 to the placebo (no CBD) group
- CBD was given to people twice a day for 14 weeks.
- The researchers measured the percentage of change in drop seizures from baseline.
- During the 28-day baseline period, the average number of drop seizures was 85 in all 3 groups combined.
- During the treatment period, drop seizures decreased from baseline by:
- 41.9% in the 20-mg CBD group
- 37.2% in the 10-mg CBD group
- 17.2% in the placebo group
- The most common side effects in people taking cannabidiol were sleepiness, decreased appetite, and diarrhea. These happened more often in people taking the higher dose of CBD.
- Only 6 people in the 20-mg CBD group and 1 person in the 10-mg CBD group stopped the study because of side effects.
- 14 people who received CBD had an increase in a test of liver function. Many of these children were on valproic acid too.
This study showed that the addition of CBD to a traditional seizure medication decreased the frequency of drop seizures significantly in children and adults with LGS.
NEJM May 2017
Summarized below are results from the May 2017 New England Journal of Medicine study examining the effectiveness of Epidiolex (CBD) in people with drug resistant seizures with Dravet syndrome.
- Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (gold standard) included 120 children and young adults with Dravet syndrome and drug-resistant seizures. They were randomly assigned to receive either CBD oral solution (20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo.
- CBD was given in addition to standard seizure medications.
- The study measured the change in the number of convulsive seizures over the CBD treatment period, as compared to baseline period.
- The percentage of people who had at least a 50% reduction in convulsive-seizure frequency was
- 43% with cannabidiol
- 27% with placebo
- The frequency of total seizures of all types was significantly reduced with CBD, but there was no significant reduction in non-convulsive seizures.
- The percentage of people who became seizure-free was 5% with CBD and 0% with placebo.
- Adverse events that occurred more frequently in the CBD group than in the placebo group included diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, fever, somnolence (sleepiness), and abnormal results on liver-function tests. There were more withdrawals from the trial in the cannabidiol group.
This study was able to show that among people with the Dravet syndrome, CBD resulted in a greater decrease in convulsive-seizures than placebo. It also showed that CBD was associated with higher rates of adverse events.
Additional Cannabidiol Studies
Results from 214 people who received Epidiolex (99% CBD) in an open-label study (without a placebo control) and who completed 12 weeks or more on the drug were published in 2015 in Lancet Neurology.
- People who received Epidiolex ranged from 2 to 26 years old with an average age of 11.
- All had epilepsy that did not respond to currently available treatments.
- During the study, seizures decreased by an average of 54%.
- People taking the anti-seizure medication clobazam (Onfi) seemed to have a better response when compared to those who were not on this medication.
An Israeli study using a product that had 20 parts of CBD to 1 part of THC was performed in an open-label format for children up to age 18 years with hard to control epilepsy. A significant number of people reported seizure reduction with 7% stating seizures worsened.
Are there ongoing CBD clinical trials?
A number of clinical trials are active and recruiting people, including studies using Epidiolex in people with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Sturge-Weber Syndrome.
Does cannabis have side effects?
Marijuana or cannabis in general has a number of side effects depending on how it is used. For example, if smoked, the negative effect of smoking on a person’s lungs and heart also apply to marijuana.
It is important to know that even though marijuana is a plant, it is broken down in a person’s liver like many medicines. People mistakenly believe that marijuana is completely safe because it is a plant or oil from a plant. However, medication interactions can occur.
The safety data from the trials in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome has shown similar side effects. Tiredness, diarrhea, and upset stomach are reported the most. Interestingly, people getting the placebo also reported diarrhea and upset stomach feeling as well. This may be due to both products being oil.
Should I worry about drug interactions?
There are some drug-to-drug interactions that have been revealed during the studies of CBD in epilepsy syndromes. More research continues to be done examining these interactions. We know from studies that have been done:
- People who had increases in their liver enzymes to a level three times or more than normal were also on valproic acid (VPA), a commonly used anti-seizure medication. The levels of VPA were not increased when taken with CBD. It is thought that a part or byproduct of VPA may interact with CBD when it is broken down. This may put some people at increased risk for liver issues.
- As clobazam (Onfi) is broken down, a major component of the drug appears to interact with CBD in some people. This may be the cause of tiredness that is seen in some people who are on both CBD and Onfi.
What are the laws governing medical marijuana and cannabidiol?
The 2018 Farm Bill, signed into law by President Trump in December 2018, exempts hemp and hemp-derived products, including CBD, from the Controlled Substances Act. Previously, hemp-derivatives were classified as Schedule I cannabis products, meaning they had no acceptable medical use and had a high potential for abuse. The Farm Bill lifts federal restrictions surrounding CBD and legalizes the cultivation, manufacturing, and sale of these products across the United States. However, this does not mean that all hemp-derived products, including CBD, are medically appropriate.
Over half of U.S. states have laws allowing cannabis to be recommended and dispensed to people for medical reasons. The 2018 Farm Bill does not change existing laws surrounding state medical cannabis programs. Individuals who purchase treatments through a medical dispensary and via a recommendation from their physician are still required to follow the regulations set forth including registration, renewal of medical cards, and other requirements decided by each state.
In June 2018, the FDA approved Epidiolex allowing medical providers to prescribe this medication for Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes, similar to how they are able to prescribe other seizure medications. In late September 2018, the DEA rescheduled Epidiolex to Schedule V and all states and the District of Columbia have created pathways so that it can be brought to market for consumers. Read an FAQ to learn more.
Providers do not need a special license or certificate to prescribe Epidiolex. Epidiolex is the first and only plant-based treatment derived from cannabis for use as a treatment for seizures with FDA approval. Other formulations of medical cannabis have not been approved by the FDA.
Traveling with CBD Products
In May 2019, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) updated its guidelines on traveling with CBD products. When you fly, you can now carry on or pack in checked baggage products/medications that contain hemp-derived CBD (with less than 0.3% THC) or are approved by the FDA, such as Epidiolex.
While the carry-on quantity of liquids is less than 3.4 ounces/100mL, TSA allows larger amounts of medically necessary liquids in reasonable quantities for your trip. However, you must declare them to security officers at the checkpoint for inspection. In checked baggage, liquid medications are allowed without packing requirements, quantity limitations, or notification requirements. Learn more on TSA’s website.
Should a person with epilepsy pursue medical cannabis if all other medications do not work?
When conventional treatments do not work to control seizures, as is the case for roughly 30% of people with epilepsy, it is not unreasonable to consider CBD oil. However, this should only be considered after a thorough evaluation at a specialized epilepsy center to look at whether all possible treatments (including FDA-approved new and add-on medicines, dietary therapy, devices, and surgery) have been reasonably tried.
The Epilepsy Foundation urges anyone exploring any treatment for their epilepsy, as permitted under their state law, to work with their treating physician to make the best decisions for their own care.
Where can I learn more?
Learn about the Epilepsy Foundation’s state and federal advocacy efforts on removing barriers to cannabis research and supporting access to medical cannabis (marijuana) in consultation with the treating physician.
- What is medical cannabis?
- What is CBD?
- What is the Epilepsy Foundation’s position on medical cannabis and CBD?
- What is the legal status of CBD?
- What is the legal status of medical cannabis?
- Are there any side effects or drug interactions associated with medical cannabis or CBD?
- Will medical cannabis or CBD replace my other medications?
- What do I do if my physician or prescribing provider will not recommend medical cannabis or CBD?
- Is there any difference in the commercial-grade CBD I purchase online or from a health food store and the dispensary-grade CBD sold in medical dispensaries?
- Are there currently any FDA-approved therapies derived from CBD?
- How is Epidiolex ® different from commercial grade CBD sold over-the-counter and in dispensaries?
Find information about medical cannabis, including research on potential treatments for seizures, side effects, laws, and advocacy efforts.