Cannabis, CBD oil and cancer
Cannabis is a plant and a class B drug. It affects people differently. It can make you feel relaxed and chilled but it can also make you feel sick, affect your memory and make you feel lethargic. CBD oil is a chemical found in cannabis.
- Cannabis has been used for centuries recreationally and as a medicine.
- It is illegal to possess or supply cannabis as it is a class B drug.
- Research is looking at the substances in cannabis to see if it might help treat cancer.
- There are anti sickness medicines that contain man-made substances of cannabis.
What are cannabis and cannabinoids?
Cannabis is a plant. It is known by many names including marijuana, weed, hemp, grass, pot, dope, ganja and hash.
The plant produces a resin that contains a number of substances or chemicals. These are called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids can have medicinal effects on the body.
The main cannabinoids are:
- Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
- Cannabidiol (CBD)
THC is a psychoactive substance that can create a ‘high’ feeling. It can affect how your brain works, changing your mood and how you feel.
CBD is a cannabinoid that may relieve pain, lower inflammation and decrease anxiety without the psychoactive ‘high’ effect of THC.
Different types of cannabis have differing amounts of these and other chemicals in them. This means they can have different effects on the body.
Cannabis is a class B drug in the UK. This means that it is illegal to have it, sell it or buy it.
CBD oil, cannabis oil and hemp oil
There are different types of oil made from parts of the cannabis plant. Some are sold legally in health food stores as a food supplement. Other types of oil are illegal.
CBD oil comes from the flowers of the cannabis plant and does not contain the psychoactive substance THC. It can be sold in the UK as a food supplement but not as a medicine. There is no evidence to support its use as a medicine.
Cannabis oil comes from the flowers, leaves and stalks of the cannabis plant. Cannabis oil often contains high levels of the psychoactive ingredient THC. Cannabis oil is illegal in the UK.
Hemp oil comes from the seeds of a type of cannabis plant that doesn’t contain the main psychoactive ingredient THC. Hemp seed oil is used for various purposes including as a protein supplement for food, a wood varnish and an ingredient in soaps.
Why people with cancer use it
Cannabis has been used medicinally and recreationally for hundreds of years.
There has been a lot of interest into whether cannabinoids might be useful as a cancer treatment. The scientific research done so far has been laboratory research, with mixed results, so we do not know if cannabinoids can treat cancer in people.
Results have shown that different cannabinoids can:
- cause cell death
- block cell growth
- stop the development of blood vessels – needed for tumours to grow
- reduce inflammation
- reduce the ability of cancers to spread
Scientists also discovered that cannabinoids can:
- sometimes encourage cancer cells to grow
- cause damage to blood vessels
Cannabinoids have helped with sickness and pain in some people.
This means a cannabis based product used to relieve symptoms.
Some cannabis based products are available on prescription as medicinal cannabis. The following medicines are sometimes prescribed to help relieve symptoms.
Nabilone is a drug developed from cannabis. It is licensed for treating severe sickness from chemotherapy that is not controlled by other anti sickness drugs. It is a capsule that you swallow whole.
Sativex is a cannabis-based medicine. It is licensed in the UK for people with Multiple Sclerosis muscle spasticity that hasn’t improved with other treatments. Sativex is a liquid that you spray into your mouth.
Researchers are looking into Sativex as a treatment for cancer related symptoms.
How you have it
Cannabis products can be smoked, vaporized, ingested (eating or drinking), absorbed through the skin (in a patch) or as a cream or spray.
CBD oil comes as a liquid or in capsules.
Prescription drugs such as Nabilone can cause side effects. This can include:
- increased heart rate
- blood pressure problems
- mood changes
- memory problems
Cannabis that contains high levels of THC can cause panic attacks, hallucinations and paranoia.
There are also many cannabis based products available online without a prescription. The quality of these products can vary. It is impossible to know what substances they might contain. They could potentially be harmful to your health and may be illegal.
Research into cannabinoids and cancer
We need more research to know if cannabis or the chemicals in it can treat cancer.
Clinical trials need to be done in large numbers where some patients have the drug and some don’t. Then you can compare how well the treatment works.
Many of the studies done so far have been small and in the laboratory. There have been a few studies involving people with cancer.
There are trials looking at whether Sativex can help with cancer pain that has not responded to other painkillers.
The results of one trial showed that Sativex did not improve pain levels. You can read the results of the trial on our clinical trials website.
Cancer nausea and vomiting
A cannabis based medicine, Nabilone, is a treatment for nausea and vomiting.
A Cochrane review in 2015 looked at all the research available looking into cannabis based medicine as a treatment for nausea and sickness in people having chemotherapy for cancer. It reported that many of the studies were too small or not well run to be able to say how well these medicines work. They say that they may be useful if all other medicines are not working.
A drug called dexanabinol which is a man made form of a chemical similar to that found in cannabis has been trialled in a phase 1 trial. This is an early trial that tries to work out whether or not the drug works in humans, what the correct dose is and what the side effects might be. The results are not available yet. You can read about the trial on our clinical trials database.
Word of caution
Cannabis is a class B drug and illegal in the UK.
There are internet scams where people offer to sell cannabis preparations to people with cancer. There is no knowing what the ingredients are in these products and they could harm your health.
Some of these scammers trick cancer patients into buying ‘cannabis oil’ which they then never receive.
You could talk with your cancer specialist about the possibility of joining a clinical trial. Trials can give access to new drugs in a safe and monitored environment.
The science blog on our website has more information about cannabis and cancer.
Cannabis is a plant and a class B drug. CBD oil is a chemical found in cannabis. Research is looking at the substances in cannabis to see if it might help treat cancer.
Best CBD oil in the UK: the top brands reviewed 2021
CBD is one of the biggest wellness products in recent years – we decode the best of the best
Once a completely banned substance, cannabis has made its way into our everyday lives in the form of CBD oil – extracts taken from the plant parts of hemp that offer relief from a variety of mental and physical health problems without the hard-hitting dosage of full-blown cannabis.
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From drinking CBD infused cocktails to buying cannabis treats for your dog – what was once seen as a controversial substance has become a well-established part of popular health culture – but is it worth the hype?
It’s only recently that I decided to try the “miracle medicine” for myself. As someone who has trouble sleeping, relaxing and switching off, I hoped it might provide a natural antidote to the constantly switched-on, anxiety-inducing world we live in.
But where to start? There are so many different strains and strengths of CBD on the market, and the UK seems to be in a constant state of confusion over the legality of these products. Even the CBD producers themselves describe it as “a semi-cowboy market” that “somewhat resembles the Wild West.”
Trial and error is a necessary part of the process to find a product that works for you, because what works for one person won’t necessarily have the same effect on others.
There are also a few very important things to consider before buying CBD oil. So, let’s start with the basics.
What exactly is CBD oil?
CBD oil (also known as cannabidiol) is made from the stalk, stems, leaves and flowers of the hemp plant, which contain high amounts of active, therapeutic cannabinoids.
This is not to be confused with hemp oil used in food and beauty, which is made from the seeds of the same plant.
CBD oil cannot “get you high” as the Home Office “only issues licences for cultivation of plants from approved seed types with a THC content not exceeding 0.2%”.
What are the benefits of CBD oil?
As CBD is only just beginning to be taken seriously in the medical industry, there are currently very few conclusive scientific studies on the topic. However, CBD is believed to have significant therapeutic properties.
The World Health Organisation claims that CBD oil is “generally well tolerated with a good safety profile,” and that it may be able to offer relief for victims suffering from:
- Multiple sclerosis (MS)
- Cancer (and related treatments)
- General pain
Is CBD oil legal in the UK?
According to The Home Office, the legal limit for cultivation is 0.2 per cent TCH and 1mg for products.
Are CBD vapes, tinctures, capsules or edibles better?
CBD oil is available in four main forms in the UK:
- Vaping allows you to feel the benefits of CBD the fastest, but scientists warn that we still don’t know what the long term effects of vapes are.
- CBD tinctures are the most popular, as they can be used to dispense as many drops of the oil as you wish under the tongue and gradually increase your dosage over time.
- Capsules are a great option for those who don’t like the flavour of CBD oil, however they are confined to a fixed dosage.
- Edible chocolates, sweets and lozenges can be taken to mask the flavour, but do not allow as much flexibility with dosage.
CBD oil dosage
Our endocannabinoid systems all react differently to various types and strengths of CBD oil. Therefore, if you haven’t taken CBD before, it’s best to start on a fairly low dosage and gradually build it up.
An effective dose can be anywhere between 5 and 75 mg per day. CBD oil is not addictive and you cannot “overdose” on it, however there can be mild side effects if too much is taken.
The real challenge is to find a CBD oil that is as pure and potent as possible. It’s worth spending more money on a strong CBD product that you’ll only need a few drops of each day, than going for something cheap that is likely to be low quality and ineffective.
How to take CBD oil
Use the tincture to dispense droplets under your tongue and hold there for 60 seconds before swallowing. This will help the CBD to enter your system and get to work faster.
What to look for when you buy CBD oil
The first CBD oil I ever bought turned out to be a fake. Lesson learnt: Don’t cheap out. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.
To avoid making the same mistake, look out for these buzzwords:
- Non-GMO and organic: For the sake of purity, you will want your CBD oil to be free from pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilisers and solvents.
- The concentration of CBD: There should be a lab certificate of analysis (either packaged with the product or on the brand’s website) showing the amount of CBD in the product. The lowest is about 300mg (3%), but this personally had no effect on me. Depending on the severity of what you want to treat, I would recommend starting on 600mg (6%) or 800mg (8%).
- The percentage of THC: If there is more than 0.2% THC in the product, then it is illegal in the UK and unregulated.
- Super critical CO2 extraction: This is generally considered the cleanest, purest, non-toxic and most efficient method of extracting CBD, but it is expensive and can hike the price up.
- Full spectrumCBD: This means that a wide range of cannabinoids are present in the oil (including vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, protein, chlorophyll, terpenes and flavonoids) which is thought to be more effective at fighting pain and inflammation, with a longer lasting effect than isolates.
- Trusted brand: Always do your research, read reviews and the check the reputation of the brand.
Best CBD oil in the UK
Endoca Raw CBD Oil – 30mg 3% CBD+CBDa
Endoca takes our top pick for a few important reasons. This CBD oil is made with 100 per cent organic hemp and is vegan, gluten free and non-GMO. But perhaps most impressive is the fact Endoca manufacture everything themselves from seed to shelf — a rarity in CBD oil production.
The brand is completely transparent about its ingredients and actually offer certified batch reports on their website as well as 24/7 customer service.
Endoca uses a supercritical CO2 extraction process and the quality of the CBD oil is verified by GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) certification as well as third party laboratory testing.
Offered in two different strengths, I found just four drops one hour before bed noticeably shortened the amount of time it took me to fall asleep. There was no drugged or heavy feeling but more akin to the sensation you have after getting a very long massage. It also helped alleviate cramps far better than my usual over-the-counter pill and hot water bottle combo.
The taste is bitter and earthy but an encapsulated version is also available if you’re sensitive to the taste. This is a reliable and clean product that worked consistently well from the very first use.
Healthspan High Strength CBD Oil Drops
Healthspan is probably one of the most well-known supplement suppliers on this list and is beloved for its quality, reputable products with the expert seal of approval from the likes of sports teams, nutritionists and medical professionals.
The brand has one of the most extensive ranges of CBD oils that span from the lower, beginner concentrations to options for the seasoned CBD-er. There’s high strength, super strength, turmeric-infused, one with optimal absorption, a cannabis-free iteration and an oil designed specifically for night-time.
Our favourite? The potent 480mg that has a peppermint flavouring. In general, CBD can have quite a bitter taste so the minty freshness that this oil brought was a welcomed change. You can apply one to eight drops up to three times a day – with no more than 25 in 24 hours.
The key ingredient is extracted using a filter-clear method that removes nasties and the aforementioned unpleasant taste. It also ensures, most importantly of all, that there is high levels of the good stuff – the CBD – and that it’s pure, vegan friendly and easy to use.
MedTerra CBD Oil
If taste is a deal-breaker, MedTerra’s CBD oils have got you covered. The oils are flavoured with the likes of citrus – which tastes like you’re sucking on a lemon sherbet.
We tried two from the range; the Broad Spectrum Cannabinoid tinctures and new Immune Boost Drops.
The oil itself goes down a treat with no earthy aftertaste. It slips down smoothly and then you’ve forgotten that you’ve even ingested it to begin with, which is how it should be. This brand makes the entire process effortless and simple so it can become a regular part of your routine and not something you dread.
There are measurements on the pipette if you want to ensure that you are taking an accurate dose.
The speciality Immune Boost Drops combines naturally formulated, GMO and pesticide-free CBD with elderberry, echinacea, vitamin C, ginger root, ashwagandha, reishi mushroom and lemon balm for a welcome fortification of your immune system – something that we could all use right now. It contains 25mg of CBD and 35mg of vitamin C.
The Broad Spectrum Cannabinoid tinctures is made up of full-plant hemp extract and is entirely free from THC (this is the definition of broad spectrum). Per 1ml, there is 40mg of hemp extract and 33mg of naturally occurring cannabinoids (CBD, CBG, CBN, CBC, CBDV).
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Jacob Hooy – 5% CBD
Ok so this CBD oil is not going to be winning any taste competitions anytime soon. As the instructions suggest it is best not to swallow for as long as possible after you ingest. Squeeze the pipette under your tongue with 10 drops per day as the absolute maximum. Our tester suggests keeping a tasty treat on hand or at least some water to disguise the acrid taste. But as for the effects, that’s where this CBD oil hits its stride.
While we didn’t notice any immediate physical effects from the oil, we weren’t looking for any in particular. Our tester wants to emphasise that she’s in good health so not looking for specific pain relief or anti-inflammatory benefits. That being said, it worked wonders on her mood. After a stressful week, only a few days into using the drops thrice daily, she felt much happier, more positive and was much more easy going.
There was no lightheadedness or hallucinogenic feeling that people assume will come with CBD oil (it is of course not THC and shouldn’t make you feel this way), but instead seemed to push all negative thoughts to one side. Some weird dreams may have been caused by the oil – or the current uncertain times – but that is seen only as a positive and was relished by the tester.
This is a medium strength product at +5 per cent (and there is a lower +2.5 per cent too) and is made entirely from natural hemp seeds that have been cold pressed to maintain its nutritional content – packed with vitamins and omegas.
CBII Oil Discovery Duo 2% + 5%
The ideal introduction to the world of CBD, luxury wellness label CBII has crafted this dynamic duo set. It contains both a 2 per cent and 5 per cent oil, so you can sample the lesser concentration for around a week or so before moving onto the higher percentage.
After placing the oil just under the tongue, it can take around 30 minutes to kick in. We found it best to create a routine and use it just before bed as it made us feel very mellow and had a great effect in promoting a deeper and longer sleep. It didn’t trigger any crazy dreams or anything out of the ordinary (which we would have liked!).
The oil itself doesn’t have a great taste. In fact, of all the CBD oils that we sampled, this was the most marijuana-like of flavours. There are some pros to this, of course, as a placebo, the medicinal taste really felt like something was working and it was doing the job. Keep a drink or a flavoured something on hand to help remove the taste straight after.
As well as better sleep, this variant really helped us drift off faster and feel calm and Zen-like.
Holistic Herb Premium CBD Oil Single Strength 15ml
Holistic Herb may be one of the newer kids on the block when it comes to CBD oil but the brand makes up for it with its advanced technology. They use a method of micro-emulsification that, while removing all traces of THC, make the CBD itself water-soluble and have greater bioavailability. The latter means that more of the product reaches your bloodstream and thus, is more potent. This explains the lower strength and why it still packs an impressive punch.
The oil has a natural taste with a faint orange aroma. The aftertaste is bitter but less so than some of the others on this list. After three drops under your tongue, three times a day, our tested immediately noticed better and longer sleeps as well as reduced pain from current and residual injury.
OTO CBD Roll-On Oil
Not your traditional CBD oil, OTO takes a more traditional wellness approach through its rollerball application. There are three varieties; Focus, Amplify and Balance that have different purposes.
Focus is designed to help you push aside anxiety, pain and stress so you can concentrate on the task at hand. It does so with a combination of CBD, rosemary, ylang ylang and peppermint. Amplify combines the powerhouse ingredient with bergamot, bitter orange and sandalwood to give you a boost of energy, improve your mood and also remove anxieties. Last but certainly not least, Balance is for times of stress and when you are feeling overwhelmed. It combines chamomile, lavender and cajeput with CBD to give you a moment of calm and also help you sleep.
With all the oils above, you simply roll the topical formula onto your temples and wrists – ideally in venous areas – so the CBD can be absorbed. This is handy for those who dislike the taste or would prefer not to ingest. The higher 20 per cent concentration ensures that you will feel the full effects of the product with the optimum quantity of 40-60mg of pure CBD per day.
Blessed CBD Oil
This has won several ‘best CBD oil in the UK’ accolades and for good reason: it’s one of the purest products on the market and offers options ranging from 500 to 1000 and even 1,800mg (which is only recommended to seasoned users), in the form of oils, balms and gummies, allowing you to choose the most effective option based on your health needs.
Even if you opt for the mildest strain, thanks to its full-spectrum profile, you’ll still get that powerful hit and the full ‘entourage’ effect of additional terpenes and flavouroids, making the investment worthwhile. Another thing we love about Blessed is how transparent the company is about its processes and lab results – a must when purchasing CBD.
Hempura CBD Oil
Hempura is a small and affordable CBD producer using supercritical CO2 extraction to refine their products, ensuring purity and safety.
Around 10 drops from their 250mg tincture enhanced my quality of sleep and helped me to unwind in the evenings. I also added a couple of drops to my moisturiser each night and found it reduced inflammation and evened my skin tone.
Trip CBD Oil
For many, the flavour of CBD oil can be a real turn off – if you’re not into that straw-like hemp flavour (which many people aren’t), you might want to turn to Trip. Only recently launched in the UK, this brand isn’t just a pretty face (and trust us, it is – the packaging is the amongst the best-looking we’ve seen on the market). Offering a Wild Mint or Orange Blossom CBD oil tincture, both are blended with chamomile to create a more flavoursome experience without forgoing the substance.
Extracted from organically-grown hemp, these oils are THC free and come in two strengths – 300mg and 1000mg – so are suitable for both new and seasoned users. They’re also third-party lab tested, meaning you can rest assured they’re high quality as well as vegan and gluten and palm oil free, making them inclusive to almost all diets and preferences.
If you’d like to support a smaller boutique company, Holistic Hemp fits the bill. Using plants grown on small European farms, the pesticide and chemical free flowers are handpicked (unlike most on the market) meaning the oil is high quality. It even has a full floral flavour (thanks to the plants they choose) that offers a pleasant taste without interfering with the benefits. Offering 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent options in various forms, this brand mixes hemp with cannabis seed carrier oil to create a full-spectrum product containing a variety of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids.
The Original Alternative CBD oil, 500mg
This great value brand has strong word of mouth reputation and claims to be the longest standing in the UK.
They grow their own organic hemp across Europe, using CO2 extraction with low pressure and heat to ensure their oils contain all the benefits of a full spectrum product.
The oils were much thicker and darker in consistency than others I’ve tried, with a potent taste. The blue edition cannabis sativa strain worked an absolute treat, allowing my muscles and mind to completely relax and aiding deep, undisturbed sleep after taking around 5 drops.
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Love Hemp CBG Oil, 500mg
Love Hemp is a premium mid-strength CBG oil with an earthy flavour, rich texture and a gentle but effective result. CBG and CBD are both cannabinoids, CBG being the predecessor to CBD in terms of how the chemical breaks down when heated. Both offer similar effects according to a 2018 study.
Taking around 8 drops before bed ensured I got a full night of good quality sleep. The Cannabidiol is CO2 extracted and lab tested, which ensures it is rich in natural cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids and phytonutrients.
This brand also sells a range of quality edibles, for those who don’t like the flavour. The only downside is the fairly hefty price tag based on the size and strength of the product.
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Bud & Tender CBD oil, 1000mg
A small British brand that’s relatively new to the scene, Bud & Tender use both CO2 and ethanol for extraction and filtration.
Their CBD oil is light in colour and texture, and one of the best tasting on the market with its fruity, floral flavour.
It provided huge relief from physical pain and stress within around half an hour of taking 5 drops, allowing the body to completely relax. The oil is beautifully refined and you can find third party lab results on the company’s website, making this a brand you can trust.
Provacan CBD oil, 1200mg
The flavour of Provacan is very strong and bitter, which takes a while to get used to – but it works wonderfully.
Just 3 or 4 drops of this relieved painful cramps as effectively as paracetamol. Provacan is a brand developed by CiiTech, who have partnered with leading cannabinoid researchers in Israel and the UK to develop the product. They publish detailed lab reports of ingredients, so you know exactly what you’re taking. It may be pricey, but a little goes a long way.
CBD oil has gained a huge following in the past two years, and as with any popular new product to reach the masses it’s important to read the fine print and do your research before buying.
Endocatakes our top spot due to sincere quality control and honest manufacturing, both of which result in a product that works very well and helped to enhance the quality of sleep.
The Original Alternative also grow their own hemp across Europe and use CO2 extraction with low pressure and heat—it also worked wonderfully.
CBD is one of the biggest wellness products in recent years – we decode the best of the best